• Human beings are dependent on environment.
• To grow food, build homes and developed better means of transport and communication, human beings have modified the environment.
(i) Settlements are places where people build their homes.
(ii) The settlements earlier grew near the river valleys as water was easily available and land was fertile.
(iii) Settlements can be permanent or temporary.
(iv) Settlements which are occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements.
(v) In permanent settlements, people build homes to live in.
(vi) Settlements can be rural or urban. Rural settlements can be compact or scattered. People in rural areas practice agriculture. In urban area, people are mostly engaged in services.
(i) Transport is the means by which people and goods move.
(ii) With the invention of wheel, transport, became easier.
(iii) Earlier donkeys, mules, bullocks and camels were used for transportation.
(iv) Earlier traders took land route or sea route for transportation. Now it takes only 6-8 hours to travel from India to Europe.
(v) The four major means of transport are roadways, railways, waterways and airways.
• Roadways:The most commonly used means of transport especially for short distances, are roads. They can be metalled or unmetalled.
(i) The railways carry heavy goods and peple over long distances quickly and economically.
(ii) The invention of steam engine and industrial revolution helped in speedy development of rail transport.
(iii) Diesel and electric engine have largely replaced the steam engines.
(iv) Now super fast trains have been introduced to make travelling easy.
(v) Indian railways network is the largest in Asia.
(i) Waterways are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distance.
(ii) There are manly two types of routes, inland waterways and sea routes.
(iii) Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways.
(iv) Sea routes are connected through ports.
(i) It is the fastest means of transport developed in the early twentieth century.
(ii) It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways.
(iii) Some major airports in the world are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo.
(i) Communication is the process of conveying messages to others.
(ii) Different modes of communication are used to provide information, to educate as well as to entertain.
(iii) Through newspaper, radio and television, we can communicate with a large number of people. They are, therefore, called mass media.
(iv) Satellites, Internet, Wireless telephone are main modes of communication.