Short Notes : Active and Passive Voice

COMPARE THE FOLLOWING TWO SENTENCES:

(i) The hunter killed the deer.

(ii) The deer was killed by the hunter.

In Sentence (i), the subject ‘hunter’ is the receiver of the action i.e. the subject is active. The verb ‘killed’ is therefore said to be in the Active Voice. In Sentence (ii), the subject ‘hunter’ is the receiver of the action i.e. the subject is not active, but passive. The verb ‘was killed’ is therefore said to be in the passive Voice.

Active Voice: A verb is in the Active Voice when the person or thing denoted by the Subject is the ‘doer’ of the action.(i.e. when the subject is Passive or is acted upon)

Passive Voice: A verb is in the Passive Voice when the person or thing denoted by the Subject is the ‘receiver’ of the action.(i.e. when the Subject is Passive or is acted upon)

RULES TO CHANGE ACTIVE INTO PASSIVE

  • Make Object the Subject.
  • Bring the Helping verb.
  • Put 3rd from of the verb.
  • Add ‘by’ if necessary.
  • Make the Subject into the Objective.

E.g. : The child threw the ball out of the house. (Active Voice)

The ball was thrown out of the house by the child. (Passive Voice)

(A) Object …….. ‘Ball’; (B) ‘Threw’ is past tense, so H.V is ‘was’; (C) ‘Thrown’ ……..3rd form of ‘throw’: (D) Add ‘by’; E) Subject….’The child’

(a) Simple Present:

(i) The grocer sells rice (Active)                                                                                                                    Rice is sold by the grocer. (Passive)

(ii) Does the grocer sell rice? (Active)                                                                                                         Is rice sold by the grocer? (Passive)

(b) Present Continuous:

(i) The teacher is punishing the student. (Active)                                      The student is being punished by the teacher. (Passive)

(ii) Is the teacher punishing the student ? (Active)                                  Is the student being punishing by the student ? (Passive)

(c) Present Perfects:

(i) My brother has written this letter. (Active)                                                     This letter has been written by my brother. (Passive)

(ii) Has my brother written this letter ? (Active)                                                Has this letter been written by my brother ? (Passive)

(d) Simple Past:

(i) My brother ate his mango. (Active)                                                                               His mango was eaten by my brother. (Passive)

(ii) Did my brother eat his mango? (Active)                                                                   Was his mango eaten by my brother? (Passive)

(e) Past Continuous:

(i) His friend was distributed Sweets. (Active)                                                Sweets were being distributed by his friend. (Passive)

(ii) Was his friend distributed the Sweets? (Active)                                Were the sweets being distributed by his friend? (Passive)

(f) Past Perfect:

(i) The potter had made the pots before summer started. (Active)         The potter had been made by the potter before summer started. (Passive)

(ii) Had the florist sold all the flowers before sunset ? (Active)                 Had the flowers been sold by the florist before sunset ? (Passive)

(g) Simple Future:

(i) I shall finish the lecture by 5 O’clock. (Active)                                  The lecture will be finished by me by 5 O’clock. (Passive) (ii) Shall I finish the lecture by 5 O’clock? (Active)                                   Will the lecture be finished by me by 5 O’clock ? (Passive)

(h) Future Perfect:

(i) I shall have completed the course before December. (Active)               The course will have been completed by me before December. (Passive)

(ii) Shall I have completed the course before December? (Active)               Will the course have been completed by me before December? (Passive)

(i) When verb take 2 Objects : In changing to passive voice, one of the Objective becomes the subject and the other is retained as Object.

(i) I taught them English. (Active)                                                                                           English was taught to them by me. (Passive)

(ii) Who taught you English? (Active)                                                                                 English was taught to you by whom? (Passive)

(j) Imperative Sentences: For Orders and Command: Let + Object + be V-3

(i) Close the window (Active) Let the window be closed. (Passive)

(ii) Do not close the windows? (Active) Let not the window be closed. (Passive)

For Advice or Request: You are requested ‘for’ please’ or ’kindly’

(i) Please come on time. (Active)                                                                                                You are requested to come on time. (Passive)

(ii) Kindly help the poor. (Active)                                                                                            You are requested to help the poor. (Passive)

(k) If Sentence Starts with ‘Let’:

(i) Let him bring some chocolates. (Active)                                                              Let some chocolates be brought by him. (Passive)

(ii) Let her do the assignment. (Active)                                                                                Let the assignment be done by her. (Passive)

CHANGES IN PRONOUNS

ACTIVE – PASSIVE VOICE AT A GLANCE

SOLVED EXAMPLE: Complete the following sentences using the correct from of the verb in the bracket.

(i) The historical monument …………… (build) thousands of years ago.

(ii) Mohan received a letter ………….. (write) by his friend after 10 days.

(iii) The money ………….. (steal) by the servant of Mr. Gupta.

(iv) Seema’s marriage outfit ………….. (design) by the famous designer Ritu Beri.

(v) The largest way flyover …………… (construct) last month in Delhi.

Ans. (i) was built (ii) written (iii) was stone (iv) was designed (v) was constructed

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