Important Short Notes on Disaster Management

Short notes on Disaster Management is provided to ensure the best understanding of the topic for the students who are making projects on the topic or preparing for the exam. Let’s explore the topic of Disaster Management:

WHAT IS A DISASTER ?

A disaster is a destructive event that occurs suddenly and involves loss of life and property.
Disasters can be of two types, natural and man-made. It is a sudden accident or a natural catastrophe that causes great damage or loss of life.

TYPES OF DISASTERS

Disasters can be of two types, natural and man-made.

 

NATURAL DISASTERS

Earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, floods, cyclones, landslides, avalanches and droughts are natural disasters and man has no control over them. They are a result of natural activities and hence known as natural disasters .

MAN MADE DISASTERS

The man-made disasters are triggered by human beings. Some of the man-made disasters are: bomb explosions, terrorism, war or civil war, leakage of poisonous chemicals, breach in dams, air or water pollution, industrial accidents and epidemics. They are known as man made disasters because they occur due to human actions and not natural forces.

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EARTHQUAKES

An earthquake is a sudden tremor or movement of the earth’s crust, which usually originates at or below the surface. The outer layer of the earth is solid and is divided into many sections known as plates. The point of origin of the earthquake within the crust or mantle is called the seismic focus. Since the focus is often deep below the surface, the location of the earthquake is often referred to as the point on the surface of the earth, vertically above the seismic focus. This point is called the epicentre.

PROTECTION AGAINST EARTHQUAKES

  • The information about earthquakes and their intensity should be shared with the public through radio, television and newspapers
  • Construction of buildings based on earthquake-resistant techniques .
  • Construct buildings over pillars made of concrete and iron that are built deep in the ground
  • Water, ration, first-aid kits, radios, flash lights, battery, blankets, jackets and fire extinguishers should be stored in safe places.
  • If inside a building or a house, take cover under a solid surface like a table, or stand in the doorway
  • If one is outside, move to an open space away from trees, electric poles and buildings .
  • Switch off the gas and electric supply in the house during a quake and do not use elevators .
  • After the quake is over, the affected people should be given immediate medical help .
  • Transport and communication facilities should be restored as soon as possible .

    FLOODS

  • A flood is an overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land.Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as a river , lake, or ocean, in which the water overtops or breaks leeves , resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries

  • PROTECTION AGAINST FLOODS

  • Floods caused by cloud bursts, bursting of dams, or tsunamis are called flash floods. Any flood is preceded by a threat period known as the Probability Period. This allows the authorities to issue warnings and plan evacuation.
  • Artificial reservoirs should be built with sluice gates and sand bags should be used to block the flow of water. Low grounds or viaducts can be created to carry water in a certain direction or underground. Trees should be planted in the catchment areas to stop soil erosion .
  • DROUGHTS

  • A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and harm to the local economy .Diminished crop growth or yield productions and carrying capacity for livestock

    CAUSES of Drought

  • Lack of rainfall (or precipitation)  Droughts can occur when there is the lack of ‘expected’ precipitation (rain and snow)
  • Surface water flow
    Some regions are also well distributed with surface water (streams and rivers) that have their sources from far away mountains and watersheds. These surface waters may dry out if the flow from their sources upstream is affected.
  • Global Warming
    Even though some people do not accept that the average temperature of the earth has risen, it is on record that human actions have contributed to more greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. As a result, there are warmer temperatures, often resulting in more dryness and bush fires often causing drought conditions .

    EFFECTS OF DROUGHTS

  • Diminished crop growth or yield productions and carrying capacity for livestock
  • Dust bowls, themselves a sign of erosion, which further erode the landscape
  • Dust storms, when drought hits an area suffering from desertification and erosion
  • Famine due to lack of water for irrigation
  • Habitat damage, affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife
  • Hunger, drought provides too little water to support food crops.
  • Malnutrition, dehydration and related diseases
  • Mass migration, resulting in internal displacement and international refugees
  • Reduced electricity production due to reduced water flow through hydroelectric dams[45] of water for industrial users
  • Social unrest
  • War over natural resources, including water and food

    PROTECTION AGAINST DRAUGHTS

  • Strategies for drought protection, mitigation or relief include:
  • Dams – many dams and their associated reservoirs supply additional water in times of drought .
  • Desalination – of sea water for irrigation or consumption.
    . For instance, analysis of water usage in Yemen has revealed that their water table (underground water level) is put at grave risk by over-use to fertilize their Khat crop.
  • Land use – Carefully planned crop rotation can help to minimize erosion and allow farmers to plant less water-dependent crops in drier years.
  • Outdoor water-use restriction – Regulating the use of sprinklers, hoses or buckets on outdoor plants, filling pools, and other water-intensive home maintenance tasks.
  • Rainwater harvesting – Collection and storage of rainwater from roofs or other suitable catchments.
    Recycled water – Former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated and purified for reuse.
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    Biological and Chemical Disasters

    BIOLOGICAL

  • An important type of man-made disaster is biological disaster. Such disasters are caused by microorganisms that cause epidemics. These have spread due to man-made conditions. Most of these have been infectious diseases such as malaria, plague, diphtheria, tuberculosis and influenza.
  • People can control the spread of these diseases by ensuring hygienic conditions and taking preventive measures. The government has taken a number of steps to contain the spread of these diseases such as fumigation to control the spread of the malarial mosquito.

  • CHEMICAL

  • Chemical disaster is another man-made disaster. Chemical and radioactive leakages are also the result of human error and result in far reaching damages.A chemical accident is the unintentional release of one or more hazardous substances which could harm human health or the environment. Chemical hazards are systems where chemical accidents could occur under certain circumstances.

    PROTECTION AGAINST BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL DISASTERS

  • People can control the spread of these diseases by ensuring hygienic conditions and taking preventive measures. The government has taken a number of steps to contain the spread of these diseases such as fumigation to control the spread of the malarial mosquito.
  • Protective clothing: Clothing reduces the risk of mosquito biting if the cloth is sufficiently thick or loosely fitting. Long sleeves and trousers with stockings may protect the arms and legs, the preferred sites for mosquito bites. Schoolchildren should adhere to these practices whenever possible.
  • Mats, coils and aerosols: Household insecticidal products, namely mosquito coils, pyrethrum space spray and aerosols have been used extensively for personal protection against mosquitoes. Electric vaporizer mats and liquid vaporizers are more recent additions which are marketed in practically all urban areas.
  • Repellents: Repellents are a common means of personal protection against mosquitoes and other biting insects. These are broadly classified into two categories, natural repellents and chemical repellents. Essential oils from plant extracts are the main natural repellent ingredients

    DISASTER MANAGEMENT

  • Disaster Management refers to the measures taken for the safety and protection of life and property from natural or man-made disasters.
    This means being prepared for disasters, fighting disasters effectively, ensuring the safety of life during disasters and helping in rebuilding society after the disaster.
  • When a disaster strikes a society, external help is usually needed in the form of aid to cope with its impact.
  • The four phases of disaster management are mitigation , preparation , response and recovery  .

COMMON TECHNIQUES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT

 

  • Youth of the country should be encouraged to learn and practise techniques of   disaster management .
  • Education about disaster management should be imparted in schools and colleges
  • Disaster evacuation drills should be practised in schools and offices
  • Prepare a first aid box which would be handy in times of disasters .
  • Details of disaster management squad should be shared through media at every corner of the country.
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  2. Join the learning group code: 101010
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