These are important notes on Chemistry in everyday life for CBSE & IIT-JEE. It’s one of the important topics from CBSE examination and IIT-JEE entrance perspective!
|Analgesics||Relieve or decreases the pain without causing unconsciousness. These are also known as “Pain Killers”.||Asprin, Analgin, seridon etc|
|Tranquizers/ Antidepressants||These are used for treatment of mental diseases.||Equanil, Calmpose, Tofranil, Barbituric Acid, Cocaine and Iproniazids etc..|
|Antiseptics||They are applied on living tissues to kill or prevent the growth of microorganisms.||Dettol, Savlon and Acriflavin etc|
|Disinfectants||These are applied on floor, instruments or wall etc. to kill microorganisms but are not safe for application on living tissues.||Phenol|
|Antimicrobial||These are use to either kill (bactericidal) or stop the growth of diseases causing microorganisms. (bacteriostatic).||Salvarsan, Prontosil, Sulphanilamide, Bacteriostatic Drugs: Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol Bactericidal Drugs: Ofloxacin, Aminoglycosides.|
|Antipyretics||These drugs bring down the body temperature during fever.||Paracetamol, Analgin and Novalgin.|
|Antifertility Drugs||Prevent pregnancy in women by controlling menstrual cycle and ovulation||Norethindrone & Mestranol|
|Antacids||Used for the treatment of acidity. Metal hydroxides are generally used as antacids.||Eno, & Milk of magnesia [Mg(OH)2]|
|Antibiotics||These are the chemical substances which are produced by micro – organisms like bacteria and fungi and are able to kill or stop the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.||Penicillin, Amoxicillin and Ampicillin.|
|Antihistamins||These drugs compete with histamine for finding sites of receptors and thus interfere with the natural action of histamine||Brompheniramine & Terfenadine|
Artificial Sweetening Agents
These are the chemical substances which prevent undesirable changes in flavor, colour, texture of the food during processing and storage of food. Examples, Table salt, sugar, vegetable oils, sodium benzoate (C6H5COONa) etc.
Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids.
Soaps do not work with hard water as it forms insoluble salts with calcium and magnesium ions present in hard water.
Detergents: Sodium or potassium salts of sulphonic acids. These can work with hard water also.
Anionic Detergents: Sodium Slats of sulphonated long chain alcohols or hydrocarbons.
Cationic Detergents: Quaternary ammonium salts of ammines with acetates, chlorates or bromates.
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Non-Ionic Detergents: Do not contain any ion.
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