Important Questions for Class XII Board Exam – Physics – II Ray Optics

1. Derive mirror formula for a concave mirror and convex mirror.
2. Derive an expression for lateral shift and normal shift. On what factors these depend.
3. Define TIR and write the conditions for TIR. Derive a relation between critical angle and the refractive index of the medium. Also explain the working of isosceles prism and optical fiber.
4. Derive the following relation for a real image formed by a convex refracting surface when the object is placed in rarer medium. Also write the assumptions and sign convention used.
5. Derive the lens maker’s formula. Also write the assumptions and sign convention used.
6. Derive the lens formula for convex lend and concave lens.
7. Derive the relation for equivalent focal length or power when two thin lenses are placed in contact to each other. In which condition the lens combination will act as a plane glass sheet.
8. Derive the following relations for a prism- 9. Where the symbols have their usual meanings.
10. Draw a ray diagram to show the image formation in refracting type astronomical telescope in the near point adjustment (when image is formed at LDDV i.e. D=25cm). Derive an expression for its magnifying power. Why the diameter of objective of telescope should be large.
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11. Draw a ray diagram to show the image formation in refracting type astronomical telescope in the normal adjustment (when image is formed at infinity). Derive an expression for its magnifying power. How does the magnifying power get affected on increasing the aperture of the objective lens and why?
12. Draw a ray diagram to show the image formation a compound microscope. Explain briefly the working. Derive an expression for its magnifying power. Why the diameter of objective of microscope should be small.
13. Draw a labeled diagram of a reflecting type telescope. State two advantages of this telescope over refracting type telescope.
14. Define resolving power of compound microscope. How does the resolving power of a compound microscope change when-(a) Refractive index of medium between the object and objective lens increases (b) Wavelength of the light used is increased (c) decreasing the diameter of objective (iv) increasing the focal length of its objective
15. Define the resolving power of astronomical telescope. Write the expression for it and state, on what factors it depends
Click Here to see chapter-wise notes for Class 12 Board Exams of Chemistry Wave-Optics

1. Define wave front. State Huygens principle and verify Snell’s law.
2. State Huygens principle and prove the laws of reflection on the basis of wave theory.
3. What do you mean by interference of light? Explain in brief the Young’s double slit experiment.
4. What are the coherent sources? Write the conditions for the sustained interference pattern. Also draw the intensity v/s path difference curve.
5. Find the conditions for constructive and destructive interference. How does the intensity depend on the width of slit?
6. Find the expression for the fringe width. What is the effect on the fringe width if the whole apparatus (YDSE) is completely immersed in a liquid of refractive index μ?
7. What do you mean by diffraction of light and state the condition for the diffraction? Obtain the conditions for secondary maxima and minima. Also draw the intensity distribution curve.
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8. Prove that the width of central maxima is twice the width of the secondary maxima. How does the width of central maxima depend on the width of the slit?
9. State Brewster’s law and prove that the reflected and refracted rays are mutually perpendicular at the angle of polarization.
10. State law of Malus and draw an intensity V/s angle between the plane of transmission of polarizer and analyzer.
11. What is a Polaroid? How are they constructed? Mention their important applications.
12. Explain Polarization of light. Give any one method to produce plane polarized light.

Dual Nature of Radiation

1. Describe the experiment to study photoelectric effect and explain the laws of photoelectric effect and the significance of each.
2. Describe Hertz and Lenard’s experiment to demonstrate photoelectric effect.
3. Explain Einstein’s photoelectric equation and explain the laws of photoelectric effect using it.
4. State and explain de Broglie relation for matter waves.
5. Describe Davisson- Germer experiment which provided experimental evidence for wave nature of matter.
6. Write the characteristics of Photon. Semiconductor Devices

1. Distinguish between conductors, insulators and semiconductors on the basis of energy bands.
2. What are extrinsic semiconductors? Mention its types and explain the mechanism of conduction in each.
3. Explain the conduction in N Type and P Type semiconductor on the basis of band theory.
4. Explain the formation of depletion layer and potential barrier in a PN junction diode.
5. Draw the circuit diagram used to determine the VI characteristics of a diode and draw the forward and reverse bias characteristics of a diode. Explain the conclusions drawn from the graph.
6. With the help of a labeled circuit diagram explain the working of half wave rectifier and draw the input and output waveforms.
7. With the help of a labeled circuit diagram explain the working of full wave rectifier and draw the input and output waveforms.
8. Write notes on LED, photodiode and solar cell.
9. What is a Zener diode? Draw the VI characteristics of zener diode. Explain Zener breakdown and describe the use of a zener diode as a voltage regulator.
10. Explain the action of a PNP transistor and an NPN transistor.(Explain how conduction takes place in NPN and PNP transistor.)
11. Draw the circuit diagram for determining transistor characteristics and describe the input and output characteristics of transistor in CB configuration with relevant graphs.
12. Draw the circuit diagram for determining transistor characteristics and describe the input and output characteristics of transistor in CE configuration with relevant graphs.
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13. Explain the working of Transistor amplifier in CE configuration with necessary circuit diagram.
14. Explain the working of transistor oscillator.
15. Explain the working of transistor as a switch.
16. Draw the symbol, truth table and Boolean expression for Or, AND and NOT gate. 17. Draw the symbol and truth table of NOR gate and NAND gate.
17. Explain, how the fundamental logic gates can be realized using NOR gates alone. 19. Explain how the fundamental logic gates can be realized using NAND gates alone. Principles of Communication

1. Derive an expression for the range of transmission via space wave from a transmitting antenna of height h.
2. Describe radio wave propagation via (a)Ground Wave(b)Space Waveand (c) Sky Wave.
3. What is the need for satellite communication? Elaborate.
4. Explain the need for modulation for long distance transmission.
5. Define amplitude modulation and illustrate it using diagrams (graphs)
6. Define modulation index and write its expression.
7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of FM over AM?
8. Explain the role of repeater in communication
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9. Describe the mechanism of demodulation (detection) of AM Wave using block diagram, circuit diagram and graphical representation
10. What is LOS communication?
11. What are the basic elements of a communication system? Explain the function of each.
12. Draw the block diagram of a communication system.
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