Sample Paper Class 10 Board Exam – Science

General Instructions :
(i) The question paper comprises two sections, A and B. You are to attempt both the sections.
(ii) All questions are compulsory.
(iii) There is no choice in any of the questions.
(iv) All questions of Section A and all questions of Section B are to be attempted separately.
(v) Question numbers 1 to 3 in Section A are one-mark questions. These are to be answered in one word or in one sentence.
(vi) Question numbers 4 to 6 in Section A are two-marks questions. These are to be answered in about 30 words each.
(vii) Question numbers 7 to 18 in Section A are three-marksquestions. These are to be answered in about 50 words each.
(viii) Question numbers 19 to 24 in Section A are five-marks questions. These are to be answered in about 70 words each.
(ix) Question numbers 25 to 33 in Section B are multiple choice questions based on practical skills. Each question is a one-mark question. You are to select one most appropriate response out of the four provided to you.
(x) Question numbers 34 to 36 in Section B are two-marks questions based on practical skills. These are to be answered in brief.


1. Write the molecular formula of first two members of homologous series having functional group –Cl.

2. Name the method by which spirogyra reproduces under favourable conditions. Is this method sexual or asexual ?

3. What is an ecosystem ?

4.An object is placed at a distance of 30 cm in front of a convex mirror of focal length 15 cm. Write four characteristics of the
image formed by the mirror.

5. What is sustainable management ? Why is reuse considered better in comparison to recycle ?

6. Management of forest and wild life resources is a very challenging task. Why ? Give any two reasons.

7. Two carbon compounds X and Y have the molecular formula C4 H8 and C5 H12 respectively. Which one of these is most likely to show addition reaction ? Justify your answer. Also give the chemical equation to explain the process of addition reaction in this case.

(i) CH3COOC2H5 + NaOH →
(ii) CH3COOH + NaOH →
(iii) C2H5OH + CH3COOH Conc. H2SO4→

9. Write the names given to the vertical columns and horizontal rows in the Modern Periodic Table. How does the metallic character of elements vary on moving down a vertical column ? How does the size of atomic radius vary on moving left to right in a horizontal row ? Give reason in support of your answer in the above two cases.

10. An element P (atomic number 20) reacts with an element Q (atomic number 17) to form a compound. Answer the following questions giving reason : Write the position of P and Q in the Modern Periodic Table and the molecular formula of the compound formed when P reacts with Q.

11.What happens when :
(a) Accidently, Planaria gets cut into many pieces ?
(b) Bryophyllum leaf falls on the wet soil ?
(c) On maturation sporangia of Rhizopus bursts ?

12. State the basic requirement for sexual reproduction ? Write the importance of such reproductions in nature.

13. State the changes that take place in the uterus when :
(a) Implantation of embryo has occurred.
(b) Female gamete / egg is not fertilised.

14. Distinguish between the acquired traits and the inherited traits in tabular form, giving one example for each.

15. Explain with the help of an example each, how the following provide evidences in favour of evolution :
(a) Homologous organs
(b) Analogous organs
(c) Fossils

16. An object 4 cm in height, is placed at 15 cm in front of a concave mirror of focal length 10 cm. At what distance from the mirror should a screen be placed to obtain a sharp image of the object. Calculate the height of the image.

17. Due to gradual weakening of ciliary muscles and diminishing flexibility of the eye lens a certain defect of vision arises. Write the name of this defect. Name the type of lens required by such persons to improve the vision. Explain the structure and function of such a lens.

18. You have been selected to talk on “ozone layer and its protection” in the school assembly on ‘Environment Day.’
(a) Why should ozone layer be protected to save the environment ?
(b) List any two ways that you would stress in your talk to bring in awareness amongst your fellow friends that would also help in protection of ozone layer as well as the environment.

19. Soaps and detergents are both types of salts. State the difference between the two. Write the mechanism of the cleansing action of soaps. Why do soaps not form lather (foam) with hard water ? Mention any two problems that arise due to the use of detergents instead of soaps.

20. (a) Name the organ that produces sperms as well as secretes a hormone in human males. Name the hormone it secretes and write its functions.
(b) Name the parts of the human female reproductive system where fertilisation occurs.
(c) Explain how the developing embryo gets nourishment inside the mother’s body.

21. How do Mendel’s experiments show that
(a) traits may be dominant or recessive ?
(b) inheritance of two traits is independent of each other ?

22. Analyse the following observation table showing variation of image distance (v) with object distance (u) in case of a convex lens and answer the questions that follow, without doing any calculations :
S. No. Object distance u (cm) Image distance v (cm)
1 – 90 + 18
2 – 60 + 20
3 – 30 + 30
4. – 20 + 60
5 – 18 + 90
6. – 10 + 100

(a) What is the focal length of the convex lens ? Give reason in support of your answer.
(b) Write the serial number of that observation which is not correct. How did you arrive at this conclusion ?
(c) Take an appropriate scale to draw ray diagram for the observation at S. No. 4 and find the approximate value of magnification.

23.(a) To construct a ray diagram we use two rays which are so chosen that it is easy to know their directions after reflection from the mirror. List two such rays and state the path of these rays after reflection in case of concave mirrors. Use these two rays and draw ray diagram to locate the image of an object placed between pole and focus of a concave mirror.
(b) A concave mirror produces three times magnified image on a screen. If the object is placed 20 cm in front of the mirror, how far is the screen from the object ?

24. (a) Draw a ray diagram to explain the term angle of deviation.
(b) Why do the component colours of incident white light split into a spectrum while passing through a glass prism, explain.
(c) Draw a labelled ray diagram to show the formation of a rainbow.


25. You have four test tubes, A, B, C and D containing sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, lime water and blue litmus solutions
respectively. Out of these the material of which test tube / test tubes would be suitable for the correct test of acetic / ethanoic acid ?
(a) only A
(b) A and B
(c) B and C
(d) A and D
26. For demonstrating the preparation of soap in the laboratory which of the following combinations of an oil and a base would be most
suitable ?
(a) Mustard oil and calcium hydroxide
(b) Castor oil and calcium hydroxide
(c) Turpentine oil and sodium hydroxide
(d) Mustard oil and sodium hydroxide
27.  A student took four test tubes P, Q, R and S and filled about 8 mL of distilled water in each. After that he dissolved an equal amount
of Na2SO 4 in P, K2SO4 in Q, CaSO4 in R and MgSO4 in S. On adding an equal amount of soap solution and shaking each test tube
well, a good amount of lather will be obtained in the test tubes :
(a) P and Q
(b) P and R
(c) P, Q and S
(d) Q, R and S
28.A student while observing an embryo of a gram seed listed various parts of the embryo as listed below : Testa, Micropyle, Cotyledon, Tegmen, Plumule, Radicle. On examining the list the teacher commented that only three parts are correct. Select these three correct parts :
(a) Cotyledon, Testa, Plumule
(b) Cotyledon, Plumule, Radicle
(c) Cotyledon, Tegmen, Radicle
(d) Cotyledon, Micropyle, Plumule

29. Select the set of homologous organs from the following :
(a) Wings of pigeon and a butterfly
(b) Wings of bat and a pigeon
(c) Forelimbs of cow, a duck and a lizard
(d) Wings of butterfly and a bat
30. Three students A, B and C focussed a distant building on a screen with the help of a concave mirror. To determine focal length of the
concave mirror they measured the distances as given below :
Student A : From mirror to the screen
Student B : From building to the screen
Student C : From building to the mirror
Who measured the focal length correctly :
(a) Only A
(b) Only B
(c) A and B
(d) B and C



34. A gas is liberated immediately with a brisk effervescence, when you add acetic acid to sodium hydrogen carbonate powder in a test
tube. Name the gas and describe the test that confirms the identity of the gas.

35. Name the type of asexual reproduction in which two individuals are formed from a single parent and the parental identity is lost.
Write the first step from where such a type of reproduction begins. Draw first two stages of this reproduction.

36. A student places a candle flame at a distance of about 60 cm from a convex lens of focal length 10 cm and focuses the image of the
flame on a screen. After that he gradually moves the flame towards the lens and each time focuses the image on the screen.
(a) In which direction-toward or away from the lens, does he move the screen to focus the image ?
(b) How does the size of the image change ?
(c) How does the intensity of the image change as the flame moves towards the lens ?
(d) Approximately for what distance between the flame and the lens, the image formed on the screen is inverted and of the same size ?

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